Insurance carriers must therefore meet the objective reasonable expectations of the policy holders and insurers must give equal consideration to the financial interest of its insurer as it does its own interest. Thus, when an insurance company does not have to put its interests behind that of its insured, it cannot protect itself while abandoning its policy holder.
In cases, commonly referred to as bad faith cases, the essential question is whether or not the insurance carrier met its duty of good faith and fair dealing in the situation presented by the performance of its contract obligations. Examples of bad faith include delaying payments, paying less than what is owned, denying benefits or coverage, or failing to settle claims within the policy limits. The insurance companies also have obligations imposed upon them including the duty to promptly investigate all claims, and where appropriate to defend their insured under the terms of the policy. Bad faith action insurance companies policies, practices, and customs will be at issue to show how the insurance company acted, to show its motive, intent, plan and knowledge concerning the particular facts of the case. It is not necessary to show that a insurer acted intentionally to cause harm. Bad faith is a state of mind and may be evidenced by both acts and circumstances on the part of the insurer, but amounts to more than a mistake.
Specific facts that may indicate bad faith on the part of the insurer include demand that the insurer contribute to the settlement, ignoring settlement advice, not disclosing policy limits to a claimant, failing to foresee probable excess verdicts, taking and employing hard line settlement tactics, and properly investigating a claim and properly evaluation a claim, failing to litigate a claim, failing to provide a proper defense, failing to consider settlement, ignoring setting advice, failing to communicate with the insured about the case, or failing to advice the insured about the potential of excess judgments, failing to advise the insured about the policy coverage, failing to advise the insured about existence of settlement offers, acting on behalf of one insured to the detriment of another insured.
It is clear that when people buy an insurance policy that they are seeking protection from the risks insured. If the insurer fails to satisfy their obligations to the policy holder, the policy holder will face the financial risks for which they had purchased protection, as well as the emotional distress as a result of the breach of the policy agreement. Policy holders and beneficiaries are obviously in a vulnerable position when they must rely on their insurance carrier to protect their interest, particularly if the insurance company does not share information, or take appropriate actions to protect the insured's interests, because an insurance company generally has superior knowledge concerning the facts and law, and in all cases where the insured is the wrongdoer, the insurance company is in control of the defense. Therefore, bad faith lawsuits promote not only compensation by injured policy holders and beneficiaries, but provide deterrence from insurance companies acting oppressively towards their customers.